Thermoforming is one of many manufacturing processes that converts plastic resin
into usable everyday products. Thermoforming is greatly relied on in today's
society because of the tremendous need for high volume plastic products.

Thermoforming is considered to be one of the most cost-effective processes in
plastics manufacturing. Thermoforming is considerably economical because of the
low molding costs and fast molding cycles. Speed and cost efficiency are the
highlighted qualities that thermoforming offers which lead the way for the
process becoming so important in industry today. The basic concept of
thermoforming is quite simple. A premanufactored thermoplastic sheet is heated
until it becomes soft and pliable. It is then forced against the contours of a
mold until it cools to its original state. Once it has cooled it is removed from
the mold while still obtaining the shape of the mold. Usually the product is
then trimmed to produce the finished product. The operation seems simple and
straight foreword but there are many different applications associated with the
process. Thermoforming is a broad term; there are many different types of
thermoforming processes. These processes all have similar traits but they do
differ in certain aspects of the overall process. Trapped Sheet Forming is a
specialized type of thermoforming. In trapped sheet forming a hot blow plate is
used in both the heating and forming process. A plastic sheet is positioned
between the hot blow plate and the female mold cavity. Air forced through the
plate and pressure from the female mold combine to thrust the sheet onto the hot
plate. The sheet is then heated and forced into the female mold by the use of
air pressure. One advantage to trapped sheet forming that is such a simplified
process that many products can be produced from this method. Also the process
uses contact heating, which is easily used and is not subject to temperature
fluctuation. The contact heating is a definite advantage but is also a slight
disadvantage. The problem with contact heating is that heat can only be applied
to the underside of the sheet. This slows down the process and restricts the use
of the more durable heavier -gauge sheets. Plug-assist forming is one of the
most widely used thermoforming processes today. In plug-assist forming a heated
sheet is sealed over a female cavity. Once the plastic is sufficiently heated
the plug-assist, which is shaped like the female cavity but slightly smaller in
size, pushes the plastic sheet and forces it in the cavity. Vacuum force pulls
the sheet onto the mold surface. The main advantage associated with plug-assist
forming is that the walls of the container can be measured precisely with the
assist. Wall thickness is uniformly the same throughout the container.

Plug-assist forming works well with both heavy and light gauge materials and is
commonly used to form deep-drawn containers. Pressure bubble plug-assist vacuum
forming is similar to plug-assist forming. In this forming process a portion of
the sheet is stretched to guarantee an even thickness of walls. The heated sheet
is positioned over the female cavity. Air is then blown up through the base
plate channel. This air causes the sheet to billow upward. The sheet is then
pushed into the cavity by the plug-assist. Vacuum is then applied to transport
the sheet to the mold. The advantage to this forming technique is that the wall
thickness can be measured with great accuracy. This process, as with plug-assist
forming, is used to create deep-drawn containers. Pressure bubble snapback
forming is similar to bubble plug-assist forming except for one aspect. The
plastic sheet is not formed by the female mold but rather the male mold. The
sheet is snapped back to form against the male mold. This forming process
improves material distribution because of its prestrecthing procedures. The
snapback vacuum forming method is popular because of its simplified process. A
sheet is clamped over a female cavity, air pressure through the base plate then
stretches the plastic. The pressure is then turned off while the vacuum is
turned on to pull the plastic into the mold. This process is widely used to
produce auto parts and luggage due to its ability to create external deep draws.

It works well with all medium to heavy -gauge sheets. The processes mentioned
are just a handful of the many thermoforming processes out in the industry
today. Everyday better more reliable products are being manufactured by
thermoforming methods. Improvements are consistently being applied to the
different processes to ultimately create better products. Thermoformings place
in the plastics industry will continue to remain strong because of the dynamics
of its manufacturing process.