Federal Aviation Regulation


     When we talk about aviation maintenance, we speak of repairs, alterations and the act of
preserving an aircraft in its original airworthy condition. An airworthiness
certificate is given to an aircraft after countless hours of design, research
and testing. And in order to keep this certificate valid; an aircraft must be
maintained in accordance with a certain specification. These specifications are
brought to us by the Federal Aviation Administration. The Federal Aviation

Regulation part that spells out these rules is found in part 43. These acts are
performed to prevent harm to pilots, passengers, and even innocent bystander
that may become involved in an incident due to improper maintenance. As
maintenance managers, we must understand these implications that must be
followed, so that we may ensure that our facility is performing to the standards
set upon us by the FAA. The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 allowed for the
regulation of air commerce in such manner as to best promote its development and
safety (Adamski and Doyle 4-8). This brought about a rulemaking process to
insure that all aspects of aviation could be regulated in a way as to provide
maximum safety to all. This was the initial birth of 14 CFR 43, or Part 43 of
the FAR's which is ironically titled Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance,

Rebuilding, and Alteration (Federal Aviation Regulations [FAR], VII, 1997). This
part has been primarily written for individuals or repair facilities that may be
performing some sort of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding and or
alterations. It refers to a number of qualified individuals that include holders
of mechanic, repairman, air carrier, or even a pilot's certificate, that may
perform an array of the procedures listed in this part. So when it comes down to
it, we as maintenance managers must know and live by FAR prt. 43 in order for
our employees to work and perform in a legal and safe manor. As the title
implies, this part of the Federal Aviation Regulations prescribes rules of
governing the maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration of
any aircraft having a U.S. airworthiness certificate; any foreign-registered
aircraft used to carry mail under pt.121, 127 or 135; and airframe, aircraft
engines, propellers, appliances, and components of such aircraft. This is
exclusive of aircraft holding an experimental airworthiness certificate, unless
the aircraft was previously issued a different kind of certificate (FAR, 1998,
p.11). So if we were working as a manager in the U.S., this part would
definitely apply to our facility, which repairs and maintains aircraft found in
this category. Part 43 also identifies persons that are authorized to perform
and return an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or
component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance,
rebuilding, or alteration. "The approval for return to service will be made
in accordance with FAR 43.9(a)(5). A&P mechanics are authorized to conduct
and approve for return to service aircraft inspected in accordance with the
owner or operator's program under a number of options. It can be done under
performance rules for inspection to which determines whether an aircraft meets
all requirements for airworthiness. Or by an inspection program under FAR 43

App. D. All work must be done in accordance with "airworthiness
limitations" (King 38). This means that a manager must know who is
performing the prescribed work in his shop, and make sure that any work
completed is done in a specific, approved fashion. A manager must know what
types of inspections are being performed to aircraft in his/her shop.

Individuals holding the appropriately rated certificate can only perform those
inspections in which they are allowed to do. Managers must be fully aware of
what part of the FAR's their shop is performing inspections under. Different
parts of the regulation require adherence to specific rules found, but not
specific to Part 43. If an aircraft comes in for an annual inspection, the
manager must have an IA available to do the inspection, but if the inspection is
a 100-hour, a certified mechanic is only needed in order to return the aircraft
to service. A manager must realize that someone not certified cannot work under
a certified mechanic when doing a 100-hour inspection. So the mechanics helper
cannot perform the inspection during times of great workloads. This puts a
constraint on the manager to hire and keep the required individuals needed for
the type of inspections being performed at his/her facility. Next, the part goes
into record keeping aspects after performing the above procedures. Great detail
is taken in explaining and recording the work in order to prevent confusion or
problems in record keeping. A manager's job would be to make sure that an
employee is adhering to the proper procedures in signing off the work performed.

But now a new rule has been proposed to the FAA from the Aviation Rulemaking

Advisory Committee that takes the burden off the backs of a technicians, and
managers, and rather holds an owner/operator accountable for any such entries
similar to the current maintenance falsification rule in FAR 43.12 (Hertzlerm,

1997, p.1). Appendix A of this section explains the exact examples of what is
meant by major alterations, major repairs, and preventive maintenance for both
the airframe and powerplant. In this case, managers must be fully aware of this
section. Similar to inspections, different individuals may sign an aircraft back
to an airworthy condition after a repair or alteration. The first thing that
must be done is to figure out if a repair or alteration is major or minor. When
a job is delegated between the two, the manager can figure out whether or not
he/she will need specific individuals to return the aircraft back to service. A
manager must be prepared and know the procedures of a repair before it comes
into the shop. A considerable difference in paper work must be accomplished
dependent on the repair or alteration. We must understand that a major repair or
alteration takes an approval of the FAA in order to be returned to service after
the repair or alteration has been completed. This is where a manager must be as
cooperative to the local FAA inspector so that when the time comes, headaches
may be eliminated when problems exist. Appendix B states the procedures that
must be followed after the completion of a major repair or alteration. Again,
the manager must be aware of the appropriate paper work associated with a
specific repair. There are for like a 337, which must be completely filled out
and sent to the FAA within a specific time after the work has been completed.

Again, if procedures aren't followed to a key, the manager and as well as the
facility is looked down upon by the FAA, and future problems may exist do to
improper procedures followed. Lastly, Appendix D states the scope and detail of
items to be included in annual and 100-hour inspection. Though some items in

App. D are not applicable to all aircraft, it gives a minimum checklist to
follow during the above inspections. In this case, managers must observe and
make sure that their technicians are using at least the minimum checklist
provided by this part. We must understand that different aircraft will be coming
in with different types of inspection programs, and different systems, but as
long as we perform the minimum requirements, we stay in the clear. A maintenance
manager has many tasks to delegate and control. Tasks that must be accomplished
by these individuals stem from controlling shop practices, dealing with
customers, and mostly conforming to FAA standards. When something goes wrong in
the shop due to poor maintenance, the manager must use his/her skills and
intuition in order to fix and control the situation. But mostly, the maintenance
manager must adhere to FAA regulation, especially Part 43, which strictly deals
with the operations that must be performed in the shop, under a manager's
ultimate authority.

Bibliography

Adamski, A. J., Doyle, T. J., Aviation Regulatory Process. (3rd ed.). (1995).

Westland, MI: Hayden-McNeil Publishing, Inc. FederalAviation Administration.
(1998). Federal Aviation Regulations and Aeronautical Information Manuel. New

Castle, WA: ASA. Hertzler, J. V. (1997). New Record Keeping Requirement.

Aviation Maintenance Regulatory Report. Retrieved March 10, 1999 from the World

Wide Web: http://avtrak.com/publications/7-31.htm King, F. H. (1986). Aviation

Maintenance Management. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.