Boeing


     The Boeing 700ís are very capable of handling duties in the commercial and
military world. The Boeing 700ís are capable of handling many tasks in the
commercial and military world. With the introduction of the 707 in the late
fifties to the most recent 777 in the early nineties the, 700ís have dominated
the commercial world for five decades. They are a line of aircraft that are
capable of handling many roles from basic civilian transport to various military
needs. They are the people movers of the 20th century. Each with a large
carrying capacity combined with the range of a jet aircraft they have moved more
people longer distances than what was once thought possible. Boeing has truly
produced some of the greatest aircraft in history. The various duties that the

700ís perform are quite extraordinary. It all started in the fifties. There
was a growing demand for a commercial airliner that could move a greater number
of people farther and faster. The age of the jet engine still had not reached to
civilian transportation. There was still a fear of the jet because of lack of
reliability, but with the advancement of technology the jet engine now had
become more even reliable than the piston engine. The need for a jet engine
powered plane was growing. Airlines still were looking for a plane that could
cross the Atlantic Ocean without a refueling stop. The Lockheed Super Connies, a
piston powered plane, were able to cross the Atlantic Ocean with out stopping on
the eastbound leg, but they had to stop in Gander, Newfoundland to refuel on the
westbound leg. The airlines desired a plane that could easily travel the

Atlantic with out a stop. The piston engine just wasnít going to do it, the
jet engine was the answer to the question. Boeing realized this and moved to
look for a design for a jet powered plane. At first Boeing was looking to modify
existing aircraft with jet engines to perform the tasks. They quickly realized
that they needed a whole new aircraft. The Boeing 707 was born. The first Boeing

707 was delivered to Pan America airlines in May of 1958 (Bauer, 218). Sales
started out slow in fact the 707 almost died many times in itís first couple
years of existence. It wasnít until Boeing modified the 707 by increasing the
overall length, the wing span, and adding more powerful engines did the 707
confirm its place in as a commercial transporter. With the new modifications the

707 became a very capable aircraft, crossing the Atlantic Ocean became a routine
affair. With the introduction of the 707 transatlantic travel doubled in two
years (Bauer, 195). Airlinesí profitability soared due to the new capabilities
of the 707 presented. The 707 began a new era and improved the way people are
flown. The 707 being the first major jet airliner saw many applications and
variations in itís lifetime. There were thirteen variations of the 707, they
varied in capacity, range, and speed (Wright,49). Each variation was designed to
meet a specific needs of an individual airline. Some 707ís could carry a
larger capacity of passengers over a shorter distance, were as another variant
could carry fewer passengers over a longer distance. With all of these
variations the 707 left little room for the Douglas DC-8 which was once though
to be a major treat to Boeing. The 707 could meet any need of an airline; this
is one reason that made the 707 such a versatile aircraft and why it dominated
the market. The 707 also saw plenty of action in uniform. Itís most useful
application came in the way of the KC-135 Stratotanker. It was modified to
perform in-flight refueling task for the United States Air Force. The 707 saw a
healthy lifespan as the KC-135, of the 735 units build in the early sixties 550
still remain in service today (www.Boeing.com). The 707 also had the very
privileged role of presidential transport. As Air Force One it started its
career in 1962 and served seven Presidents. It was only to be replace by one of
itís bigger brothers the Boeing 747. Another of one of itís more interesting
applications was that of the "Vomet Come" a modified KC-135 to make large
in-flight arcs to provide a weightless environment to train NASA astronauts.

Altogether the 707 and its derivatives saw many varied and interesting
applications. With the 707 fulfilling the needs for a long range jetliner there
was a demand by the airline industry for a short to medium range jet. A jet that
was designed for short-range use would provide savings over a long-range jet and
faster travel times that were presently completed by prop driven planes. Boeing
went to the drawing boards and came out with the 727. When the 727 finally came
to production it came out with better performance that what was originally
planned. "As throughout Boeingís history, its strong, patient, intense
engineering efforts had once more been the key" (Bauer, 226). The 727 filled
the duty of short to medium range better than any other aircraft. It showed in
the sales and the 727 became at the time the most selling Boeing aircraft, but
that title would not remain very long. The Boeing 737 became the most selling
commercial jetliner in the world. To date it has sold 3,158 units and there are
still more on order (www.Boeing.com). Its primary role is short to medium range
passenger transport. The 737 were to be a gradual replacement to the 727 and did
so quite well, it became known as the "Little Giant." The 737 also proved to
be a very rugged aircraft, with a kit add-on to the landing gears it made it
possible for the 737 to land on unimproved runways like a grass field or a
gravel runway. The 737 also were far superior in its ability to take off from
high altitude, short runways. These abilities made the 737 very versatile it
could link many areas that were unable maintain a modern airport that would have
a paved runway (Bauer, 250). One key feature to the 737, which made it the
success it was, was the decision to make the plane six seats abreast. Douglas
was the main competition in the beginning has a plane that was five seats
abreast. Even with Douglasís advantage in speed and range it could never match
the seat per-mile cost the 737 gave. The single decision, which meant about a

17inch increase of diameter over the DOUGLAS DC-9, meant the success of the 737
and the failure of the DC-9. Above: Comparison between the DC-9 and 737
cross-sections. With the ruggedness of the 737 it sees several applications for
the Military. Its most widely used application is as a training aid for both
pilots and navigators. Pilots use the USAF designated T-43 737s as a flight
trainer for large cargo and transport aircraft. The 737 is a large aircraft but
not too large aircraft, it provides the perfect stepping stone for pilots into
the huge birds that are present in todayís Air Force. It also provides
navigational training. Its wider design offers plenty of room for the trainees
and their instructors. One T-43 has about 19 stations for its students (Minton,

31). The T-43 provides a very accommodating learning environment for the flight
students. The largest and most infamous member of the family is the Boeing 747,
the "Jumbo Jet"." This is an aircraft that has changed commercial
airliners forever. With its sheer size it put itself in a class of itís own.

The 747 offer a lower seat per-mile cost and a more efficient way for
transportation than any other aircraft. It can move more people and cargo
farther and faster. "The 707 brought jet transportation to people. The 747
brought jet transportation to the everyday people" (Norris and Wagner, 26).

747s have become the backbone of many airlines, in that they handle more people
and cargo than any of their other planes. 747 not only provides a highly
efficient people mover it has also been a great improvement of cargo
transportation. Some modified 747 have a large upward swinging door at the nose
of the plane. This door allows for great ease in loading large cargo items.

Boeing also offered the option of a side panel door for loading. This was mainly
used in the "Combi" 747; they were 747 they would transport people and cargo
at the same time. The 747 also serve several roles in the Military. Most notably
is in the application of presidential transportation as Air Force One. The 747
replace the 707 as Air Force One with great pride. With the increase in room and
luxury the President hasnít had a better ride since. The 747 also found itself
the solution to a rather large problem that is of the transportation of the

Space Shuttle. There really is no other way to transport the large orbiter than
strapping it onto the top of a 747. NASA bought an ex-American Airlines 747 in

1977 and has been using it ever since (Gilchrist, 61). By the late seventies the

727 and 737 were showing their age. Boeing was unable to sell newly modified
versions of the two aircraft and they soon realized that a whole new aircraft
was in need. The new aircraft did not come in the form of a single plane but in
two completely different airplanes that would pick up the slack in the short to
medium range jet planes. These planes would be the 757 and the 767. They would
prove to be very qualified successors to the 727 and the 737 proving themselves
in both the commercial and military world. In fact the 767 came out of
production with great performance than what was original planned. "Getting it
into service, getting it under our original cost estimates and one day early-I
donít know how you can improve on that. And thatís due to the great team at

Boeing" (Bauer, 320). The short to medium range jet had been modernized with
increases in performance of its capacity, speed, and fuel consumption. The

Military had their eye on the 767. It was as wide-bodied aircraft similar in
dimensions to the 737 and the wider body is what the Military saw most
appealing. One of the primary functions the 767 serves is in the AWACS (Airborne

Warning and Control System) program. It is a 767 modified with a large circular
disc on the top. The disc is composed of radars and antennas, it purpose is to
target and track targets from a long range, this information is then
communicated to fighters on stand by. The body of the plane has a crew and a
large amount of computer equipment used in the process of determining targets.

Boeing has some more plans for the 767, Boeing see it a very capable candidate
for a tanker/transport variant that would provide in flight refueling and
transportation duties (www.Boeing.com). The last in the family is the 777, which
were introduced, in the early nineties. It is a complete new generation of
aircraft with the complete integration of computers. The 777 has two main
variants presently they are the 777-200 and the 777-300. Their main difference
is length and capacity, the 300 is about 33 feet longer and can hold about 70
more passengers than the 200. Both will work to satisfy the different needs of
an airline. A newer version is in the works too. It is the 777-400 planned to
have even greater capacity that what is now present. The 777 should gradually
replace the 747 as the large capacity long-range jet (www.Boeing.com). The 777
are the plane of the future and will have many service roles in the commercial
world. The line of the Boeing 700 aircraft is undeniably a very versatile line
of aircraft. From the beginning they have dominated in commercial jet sales and
for good reason. Boeing has always made their aircraft with the utmost quality
and attention to detail. Boeing will test and test again until they get it right
and that shows in their products. The 700ís serve any commercial and military
need placed on them. They have made long distant travel a comfort and a pleasure
to many. It is hard to imagine what is would be like without Boeing. It is very
safe to say that commercial airline travel would simply not be at the same
caliber we find it today.